Timeline of early history    3500 B.C. - 0 A.d.

More detailed:


3500 BC   


Sumeria, civilization is first recorded on the fertile crescent (present day iraq), the land known as messopotamia, which means the land between two rivers.


the two rivers were the tigris and euphrates river, and the land in between them was very fertile. the people developed cuneiform, which was a way of writing on clay tablets with a serious of marks that stood for words.


3100 B.C.


Civilization is recorded in egypt, along the nile river. king menes unites the north and south of egypt into one kingdom. the nile river flood twice a year, making the land rich with silt and fertile for growing crops. this land becomes more expensive than any other and taxes on property are established.


Egyptians write in hieroglyphics, a sort of picture language.


2700 BC


Egypt, the ruler of egypt is now called a pharoah and he decides to have a tomb built for him for when he dies. this tomb will be a giant pyramid.


2500 BC


India, people migrate in from europe and settle at the ganges river. they begin the first two communities of india, called harrappa and mohenjo darro.


2200 BC


China, people settle at the yellow river. they are ruled by a single family and it is known as the shi dynasty. these people build their houses out of stone.


2000  BC


the city-states of mesopotamia are united by a single man named sargon. the city-states are like the different provinces. they include ur (where abraham is from), uruk (where the legend gilgamesh takes place), and babylon. Sargon claims to be close to the gods and has ziggurats built (multi-layered temples), so that he can stand on them and be closer to the heavens.


1900 BC


Abraham, leader of the jewish people, leaves the city-state of ur with his followers. He goes to canaan. Then he leaves canaan and goes to egypt where he and his people are enslaved.


On the one hand, he was smart to leave ur, because ur is 100 years away from being wiped out by a drought, as is the rest of mesopotamia. but abraham and his followers make a grave mistake by leaving canaan, a place that is so perfect, that they will later consider it the holy land and dream of returning. hundreds of years later, the jews will finally return (1020 B.C.). Thousands of years later, Canaan will become palestine. And Eventually, it wilL return to the jews to become israel in 1948 A.D.


Also, in 1900 B.C., the celts rise up and take their forces over to briton, (what will later become great britain), and conquer the land and people there. the celts will also have a prominent place in history and will rise up to even challenge the romans until eventually they will be put down by julius caesar in 55 b.C. For now, in 1900, they are just on the rise.


1800 BC


Sumeria is hit by a drought. the civilization there collapses.


1700 BC  


King Hamurabi starts a rebuilding of sumeria with the great city of babylon. He makes ziggurats to stand on so that he can be closer to the gods. the story of the tower of babel comes from here, where again, people tried to build a tower so high that it would reach the heavens.













Hammurabi makes a law code with harsh laws and consequences for breaking these laws. one example of a penalty is to cut someone’s hand off. this is the first example of an organized law code in history.


1600 BC  


the hiitites rise come to the fertile crescent with iron weapons and overtake babylon.


1500 BC


India, the aryans come into india preaching their religion, hinduism. in this religion, one is born into a certain caste, or group and the goal of life is to be such a good person that when you are reborn you will be born into a higher caste.


One cannot move castes during one’s own liftime. the ultimate goal of moving from caste to caste during multiple lifetimes is to eventually reach nirvana, absolute peace, a place where you have no desires.


1400 BC


Greece, the earliest greek civilization known to history is the minoan civilization.


the minoans on the island of crete are met with an earthquake. their civilization is destroyed. these were the people of king minos and the legend of theseus and the minotaur. the time before this was classical greece, the time of greek mythology. now the mycenaeans take over on the island of crete, replacing the minoans.


1250 BC


Moses comes to egypt and leads the jewish people out of the land of pharoah and across the red sea. this event is known as the exodus as he frees the jewish people from slavery and they wander into the dessert.
















1225 BC


The phoenicians, from the land between tyre and sIdon, (in the middle east, right above israel), invent the first written, phonemic language. their language uses letters to make words.


1200 BC


The dorians (achadians) come down, out of the mountains and into greece. they attack and defeat all who are in their way. they become the new greeks. this is the end of the hiitite civilization, the mycenaeans, and the trojans.


the trojan war is fought, for these new greeks are the type who know no boundaries. they have their beloved princess kidnapped by the trojans and then bring a wooden horse into troy as part of a plan to deceive the trojan soldiers, catch them off their guard, and kill them.











while all this is happening, the assyrians see their chance to quietly rise up in the background.


1100 BC


the celts take austria. back in 1900 BC they took briton. they are starting to gradually become more and more powerful.


1020 BC   


The Jewish people return to israel. the twelve tribes that wandered through the dessert now unite as one under king saul. This marks the beginning of a 100 year period in which the jews went from greatness to defeat.


1000 BC


King David takes over for the leadership of the jews and makes jerusalem the capital of israel.


960 BC


King Solomon makes judaism the official religion of the jews. this will be the start of the problem. because there is now an official religion, a temple needs to be built and so high taxes are imposed on the people in order to have money to build that temple.


940  BC


King Solomon has passed away and many of the jewish people no longer want to pay the taxes. this causes a giant rift between the people, and eventually the kingdom of israel splits into two.


there is israel and then there is judea. this splitting has made the people of israel weak, and subject to attack.


900 B.C.


the assyrians conquer the fertile crescent. while the jews in israel are getting weaker, the assyrians are building their way, by conquering more and more people, and getting stronger.


800 B.C.

the greek poet homer writes the two epic poems, the odyssey and the iliad. these poems are about the time of the trojan war and then the aftermath that followed (1200 bC). they are about the classical age of greece. in a couple of years, greece will experience a golden age with both athens and sparta flourishing (470BC - 340 BC). Homer’s epic poem the iliad is based on stories from the mediterranean area, and his epic poem the odyssey is composed of stories from egypt. He adds the greek gods into each of these poems to give them a greek feel.












722 B.C.


the assyrians conquer israel. this event seemed inevitable over the past few hundred years, with israel getting weaker because of their pursuit of religion, (1000s BC) and the assyrians getting stronger ever since they emerged in Greece in 1200 B.C.


600 B.C.


The First etruscan king comes to rome and rules. He is a poor leader, as will his followers be, and a very harsh dictator. these etruscan kings will run rome until 470 B.C., at which time rome will become a republic, and be paranoid about the possibility of ever having a dictatorship again. All because of how awful these etruscan kings were.


590 B.C.


THe Neo Babylonians conquer the assyrians. These “new” babylonians then go after israel, which was conquered by the assyrians. the neo-babylonians take it a step further, kidnapping and enslaving the people of israel.


550 B.C.


Cyrus the great rules persia and conquers the neo-babylonians. he conquers the fertile crescent and frees the jews, allowing them to return to israel. He even encourages them to rebuild their temple when the get there, (knowing he will be able to collect taxes from it).


Cyrus is a benevolent ruler who allows the people he conquers to stay in their authoritative positions, instead of replacing them with his own people. they can keep their jobs, but they now report to him. He also allows them to keep their religion and cultural ways. no leader has ever done this before. Cyrus believes that a happy people are less likely to revolt.


He conquers the people of lydia (when the horses these people are on smell the camels that cyrus’ men are on, they can’t handle it and go crazy, and Cyrus wins the battle). Then he conquers the rest of the fertile crescent and finally egypt. he dies on his way back from conquering egypt.












The most important years and dates:


3500 bc        The Fertile cresecent, first history is recorded in mesopotamia.


2700 BC    THe pyramids in egypt


2000    Sargon unites mesopotamia


1700    King Hamurabi of babylon (in mesopotamia)


1500    The aryans come into india, start of hinduism, (caste system)


1200    The assyrians rise in greece. end of troy, end of hittites, end of mycenaeans.


1000 BC   The Aryans migrate from india to persia, rename the land iran


900 bc    The assyrians conquer the fertile crescent


800 home’s poems in greece


600    etruscan kings in rome, assyrians are conquered by neo-babylonians, making way for persian empire (aryans)